Grub floppy creation Insert a blank floppy disk into the floppy drive and type the following command in the terminal

su - (change to super user)

grub-floppy /dev/fd0

after this command that floppy will became a grub floppy Grub cd creationFirst log in as root ,take the terminal and type the following commands

mkdir –p iso/boot/grub it will create a folder named iso in root’s home folder.That contain boot ,that boot contain grub folders

cp /lib/grub/i386-pc/stage2_eltorito iso/boot/grub (enter)

mkisofs –R –b boot/grub/stage2_eltorito –no-emul-boot –boot-load-size 4 –boot-info-table –o grub.iso iso Grub editing by using grub floppy/cd If you are editing grub using grub floopy set the floppy drive as first boot device in BOIS

 If you are editing grub using  grub CD set the CDdrive as first boot device  in BOIS

Then we get a terminal with grub> ,Then type the following commands

root (hd0, Press double tab , then it shows all partion in that disk, find out linux partition number which is the line containing ext2fs and ended with 0x83 suppose that number is 4

root (hd0,4) enter

kernel /boot/vm (Press tab key) root=dev/hda5 enter key

initrd /boot/initrd (Press tab key) enter key


Then it will began to boot ,after booting take a root terminal, type the command

grub-install /dev/hda to install that grub on to the master boot record

Deb Cd Creation

All down loaded packages will be down loaded into

/var/cache/apt/archieves copy all packages without partial folder and create a foldera folder named deb in user’s home directory and paste it into that folder

than take a terminal ,type this command

apt-ftparchive packages deb | gzip > Packages.gz Then it will create a folder named Packages.gz in home directory Burn the 2 folders (deb and Packages.gz)by using gnome baker to create a DEB CD

CD ImageCreation

To create a image of a cd Insert the cd, take a root terminal , type the following command

dd if=/dev/hdc of=anyname.iso

then it will create an iso image of that CD in home directory

synaptic package manager

  This software help you to install/remove  new/existing packages into ur it@school linux operating system
  Desktop ->administration  -> synapticpackagemanager

package installation from deb cd

     edit->add CD rom

Then an index file of that deb cd will be created on repository

Package installation from internet


Eg: URL:

         Distribution :     stable
           section :            main

Next ok button, reload.then it will download an index files(repository) from )

Now repositories are added , For to install a package in both cases first

Click status->not installed

Then it will shows all not installed packages, click any packages then type the name of your package which you want to install,then it will shows that package

    Right click->mark for installation->mark->applay->tobe installed->apply

Then it will began to install that package from internet

Remote desktop by using vnc viewer

Before starting it you have to do some settings

Application->systemtool->login screen setup

   In security option unmark disallow TCP connection
   In XDMCP ,enable  XDMCP

Now settings are ok

       Then application->run application
  Type xvncviewer     

Type the ip address of the system ,which you want to see the desktop

Press big enter key only

Remote desktop from command terminal

Press Alt+clt+f1

 Log in as root


 X :  1 –query  ipadress

Then you can log in to that system

For to get our own system’s desktop press alt+f7

For to get other’s system’s desktop press alt+f8

for to get next system’s desktop



 X :  1 –query  ipadress

Then you can log in to that system

For to get our own system’s desktop press alt+f7

For to get 1st system’s desktop press alt+f8

For to get 2st system’s desktop press alt+f9

Similarly 5 system’s desktops can see ( alt+f7 to alt +f12,)

For to disconnect from one connection

Take the corresponding terminal press clt+c

Malayalam font installation (for browsers)

Take mozilla web browser

    Type matweb.ttf

Save all Malayalam fonts into your system , in default it will save into your home directory

 Create a folder named .fonts in to your home directory

Copy all saved fonts and paste into .fonts folder

Next take a terminal


now fonts are installed, close all areary opened browsers

ip address assigning


      root password

etho0 -. > properties



subnet mask:

gateway : ip addr of the net connected system

press ok

press dns, add button to add the dns ip

press ok

how to find out your ip address

take terminal

 su – 


To find out whether your system is connected to other system

Ping ip addr of other systems ip address


In default there are 7 terminal they are 1,2,3,…….7. It can opened by pressing clt+alt+f1,clt+alt+f2,…………..,clt+alt+f7 are the command promt clt+alt+f7 is graphical mode.

When we press the clt+alt+f1 terminal 1 is open then it will show login name & password

For example

 Login name : debian

Password: ********

Then it show as debian(username)@debian(hostname)~(home directory)$ (normal user)

If it super it will be like this debian(host)~(home directory)#(super user)

Command Pwd ->present working directory

ls -> list directory and file

     ls –l  ( list the directory and file in details)
     ls –a  (list the hidden files) 

Shortcuts in the command promt

Clt+a = the beginning of the command

Clt+e = the end of the command Clt+k=the right side will be deleted

Clt+u=the left side will be deleted

If want more about a command just

debian@debian$ man (command) for example man ls

if want to know brief idea about the command just type

debian@debian~$ whatis (command) for example whatis ls

command to find a vga card

 debian@debian~$ lspci |grep VGA

command to redirect a command output to a file

debian@debian~$ command > filename for example

debian@debian~$ lspci > file.txt

short cut in command

debian@debian~$ alias c=clear

Short cut in the Graphical mode

How to run as root user in graphic mode when you login as normal user

Just press alt+f2 then you will get run terminal box type gksu nautilus After that you will get home directory of root in graphical How we can edit root user privilege file when we login as normal user

Just press alt+f2 then you will get run terminal box type gksu gedit

After that you will get gedit with root privilege

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