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section1- santhoshEdit

# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
# Copyright (C) YEAR Free Software Foundation, Inc.
# This file is distributed under the same license as the PACKAGE package.
# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
#
#, fuzzy
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: PACKAGE VERSION\n"
"POT-Creation-Date: 2008-08-25 16:25-0300\n"
"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=CHARSET\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: ENCODING"

# type: Content of: <title>
msgid "About the GNU Project - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)"
msgstr "ഗ്നു സംരംഭത്തെകുറിച്ചു് - ഗ്നു സംരംഭം- സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ ഫൌണ്ടേഷന്‍(FSF)"

# type: Attribute 'content' of: <meta>
msgid "GNU, GNU Project, FSF, Free Software, Free Software Foundation, History"
msgstr "ഗ്നു, ഗ്നും സംരംഭം,  എഫ്.എസ്.എഫ്, സ്വതന്ത്ര സോസഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ ഫൌണ്ടേഷന്‍, ചരിത്രം "

# type: Content of: <h2>
msgid "The GNU Project"
msgstr "ഗ്നു സംരംഭം"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"by <a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\"><strong>Richard "
"Stallman</strong></a>"
msgstr ""
"<a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\"><strongറിച്ചാര്‍ഡ് സ്റ്റാള്‍മാന്‍ "
"</strong></a>"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid "originally published in the book “Open Sources”"
msgstr "“ഓപ്പണ്‍ സോഴ്സസ്” എന്ന പുസ്തകത്തില്‍ പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിച്ചതു്"

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The first software-sharing community"
msgstr "സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ പങ്കുവെയ്ക്കുന്നവരുടെ ആദ്യകാല കൂട്ടായ്മ"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"When I started working at the <abbr title=\"Massachusetts Institute of "
"Technology\">MIT</abbr> Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1971, I became part "
"of a software-sharing community that had existed for many years.  Sharing of "
"software was not limited to our particular community; it is as old as "
"computers, just as sharing of recipes is as old as cooking.  But we did it "
"more than most."
msgstr ""
"1971 ല്‍ ഞാന്‍ <abbr title=\"മസാചുസെറ്റ് ഇന്‍സ്റ്റിറ്റ്യൂട്ട് ഓഫ്  "
"ടെക്നോളജി\">MIT</abbr>യിലെ ആര്‍ട്ടിഫിഷ്യല്‍ ഇന്റലിജന്‍സ് ലാബില്‍"
"ജോലിയ്ക്കുചേര്‍ന്നപ്പോള്‍ വര്‍ഷങ്ങളായി സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ പങ്കുവെച്ചുകൊണ്ടിരിക്കുന്നവരുടെ കൂട്ടായ്മയില്‍"
"അംഗമായി. സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറുകളുടെ പങ്കുവെയ്ക്കല്‍ എന്നതു് ഞങ്ങളുടെ കൂട്ടായ്മയില്‍ ഒതുങ്ങുന്നതായിരുന്നില്ല,"
"കമ്പ്യൂട്ടറുകളുള്ളിടത്തോളം അതിനു പഴക്കമുണ്ടു, പാചകക്കുറിപ്പുകള്‍ കൈമാറുന്നതിനു് പാചകത്തോളം പഴക്കമുള്ളപോലെ."
"പക്ഷേ ഞങ്ങള്‍ അതു് മറ്റുള്ളവരേക്കാളും കൂടുതല്‍ ചെയ്തു."

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr "
"title=\"Incompatible Timesharing System\">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible "
"Timesharing System) that the lab's staff hackers (1) had designed and "
"written in assembler language for the Digital <abbr title=\"Programmed Data "
"Processor\">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era.  As a "
"member of this community, an AI lab staff system hacker, my job was to "
"improve this system."
msgstr ""
"AI ലാബ് <abbr "title=\"Incompatible Timesharing System\">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible "
"Timesharing System)  എന്നു പേരില്‍ ഒരു പ്രവര്‍ത്തകസംവിധാനം ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നു. ലാബിലെ"
"അംഗങ്ങളായ ഹാക്കാര്‍മാര്‍(1)  ചേര്‍ന്നു്  Digital <abbr title=\"Programmed Data "
"Processor\">PDP</abbr>-10 എന്ന അക്കാലത്തെ വലിയ കമ്പ്യൂട്ടറിനുവേണ്ടി അസംബ്ലെര്‍ ഭാഷയില്‍"
"എഴുതിയതായിരുന്നു അതു്. കൂട്ടായ്മയിലെ അംഗമെന്ന നിലയിലും, ലാവിലെ സിസ്റ്റം ഹാക്കറെന്ന നിലയിലും"
"ആ സിസ്റ്റത്തെ പരിഷ്കരിക്കുക എന്നതായിരുന്നു എന്റെ ജോലി"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"We did not call our software “free software”, because that term "
"did not yet exist; but that is what it was.  Whenever people from another "
"university or a company wanted to port and use a program, we gladly let "
"them.  If you saw someone using an unfamiliar and interesting program, you "
"could always ask to see the source code, so that you could read it, change "
"it, or cannibalize parts of it to make a new program."
msgstr ""
"ഞങ്ങള്‍ ഞങ്ങളുടെ സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറുകളെ സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ എന്നു വിളിച്ചിരുന്നില്ല, കാരണം"
"അങ്ങനെഒരു വാക്കു് ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നില്ല. പക്ഷേ സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ തന്നെയായിരുന്നു. വേറെ ഏതെങ്കിലും"
"സര്‍വ്വകലാശാലയിലെയോ കമ്പനികളിലെയോ ആള്‍ക്കാര്‍ക്കു് ഒരു സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ ആവശ്യമായിവന്നാല്‍ ഞങ്ങള്‍"
"സന്തോഷത്തോടെ കൊടുക്കുമായിരുന്നു. ആരെങ്കിലും പരിചിതമല്ലാത്ത രസകരമായ ഏതെങ്കിലും പ്രോഗ്രാം"
"ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കുന്നതു കണ്ടാല്‍ അതിന്റെ സോഴ്സ് കോഡ് ചോദിക്കാമായിരുന്നു. അതുവായിക്കാനും അതുപയോഗിച്ചു് അതിനെ"
"മാറ്റം വരുത്തി, അതിന്റെ ഭാഗങ്ങള്‍ അഴിച്ചുപണിതു് പുതിയ പ്രോഗ്രാം ഉണ്ടാക്കാനും."

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(1) The use of “hacker” to mean “security breaker” "
"is a confusion on the part of the mass media.  We hackers refuse to "
"recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean, “Someone "
"who loves to program and enjoys being clever about it.”"
msgstr ""
"(1) ബഹുജനമാധ്യമങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കിയ ആശയക്കുഴപ്പമാണു്   “ഹാക്കര്‍” "
"എന്ന വാക്കിന്റെ “സുരക്ഷാ ഭേദകന്‍”  എന്ന അര്‍ത്ഥം. ഞങ്ങള്‍"
"ഹാക്കര്‍മാര്‍ ആ അര്‍ത്ഥത്തെ നിഷേഷിയ്ക്കുന്നു. അതോടൊപ്പം “പ്രോഗ്രാം"
"ചെയ്യാനും അതില്‍ ബുദ്ധിസാമര്‍ത്ഥ്യം കാണിക്കാനും ഇഷ്ടപ്പെടുന്നവന്‍.”"
"എന്ന അര്‍ത്ഥത്തില്‍ ആ വാക്കുപയോഗിയ്ക്കുന്നു"

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The collapse of the community"
msgstr "കൂട്ടായ്മയുടെ തകര്‍ച്ച"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The situation changed drastically in the early 1980s when Digital "
"discontinued the <abbr>PDP</abbr>-10 series.  Its architecture, elegant and "
"powerful in the 60s, could not extend naturally to the larger address spaces "
"that were becoming feasible in the 80s.  This meant that nearly all of the "
"programs composing <abbr>ITS</abbr> were obsolete."
msgstr ""
"Digital അവരുടെ <abbr>PDP</abbr>-10 ശ്രേനി നിര്‍ത്തലാക്കിയതോടെ "
"1980 കളുടെ ആരംഭത്തില്‍ ഈ സ്ഥിതി വല്ലാതെ മാറി. അറുപതുകളിലെ അതിന്റെ "
"രൂപകല്പനയിലുണ്ടായിരുന്ന ശക്തിയോ സൌന്ദര്യമോ എണ്‍പതുകളില്‍ സാധ്യമായ വിസ്തൃത"
"അഡ്ര്സ് സ്പേസിലേക്ക് നിലനിര്‍ത്താന്‍ കഴിഞ്ഞില്ല. അതായതു്  <abbr>ITS</abbr> ലെ"
"ഒട്ടുമിക്ക പ്രോഗ്രാമുകളും ഉപയോഗശൂന്യമായി"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The AI lab hacker community had already collapsed, not long before.  In "
"1981, the spin-off company Symbolics had hired away nearly all of the "
"hackers from the AI lab, and the depopulated community was unable to "
"maintain itself.  (The book Hackers, by Steve Levy, describes these events, "
"as well as giving a clear picture of this community in its prime.)  When the "
"AI lab bought a new <abbr>PDP</abbr>-10 in 1982, its administrators decided "
"to use Digital's non-free timesharing system instead of <abbr>ITS</abbr>."
msgstr ""
"AI ലാബിലെ ഹാക്കര്‍മാരുടെ കൂട്ടായ്മയും അതിനോടകം തകര്‍ന്നിരുന്നു. 1981 ല്‍"
"Symbolics എന്ന കമ്പനി AI ലാബിലെ ഹാക്കര്‍മാരെയും എടുത്തതോടെ ജനസംഖ്യ കുറഞ്ഞ"
"കൂട്ടായ്മയ്ക്ക് സ്വയം നിലനില്‍ക്കാന്‍ കഴിഞ്ഞില്ല. (സ്റ്റീവ് ലെവിയുടെ ഹാക്കേഴ്സ് എന്ന പുസ്തകം"
"ഈ സംഭവങ്ങളെ വിശദീകരിക്കുന്നുണ്ടു്,  ആ സമയത്തുണ്ടായിരുന്ന കൂട്ടായ്മയെപറ്റിയും അതു് വ്യക്തമായ"
"ചിത്രം നല്‍കുന്നുണ്ട്). 1982 ല്‍ AI ലാബ് പുതിയൊരു  <abbr>PDP</abbr>-10 വാങ്ങാന്‍ തീരുമാനിച്ചപ്പോള്‍ "
"അവിടുത്തെ അധികാരികള്‍ <abbr>ITS</abbr> നു പകരം Digital ന്റെ സ്വതന്ത്രമല്ലാത്ത ടൈം ഷെയറിങ്ങ് 
"സിസ്റ്റം ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കാന്‍ തീരുമാനിച്ചു"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The modern computers of the era, such as the VAX or the 68020, had their own "
"operating systems, but none of them were free software: you had to sign a "
"nondisclosure agreement even to get an executable copy."
msgstr ""
"അക്കാലത്തെ പരിഷ്കൃത കമ്പ്യൂട്ടറുകളായിരുന്ന VAX  അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ 68020 എന്നിവയ്ക്കു് "
"സ്വന്തം പ്രവര്‍ത്തകസംവിധാനമുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. പക്ഷേ ഒന്നും സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറല്ലായിരുന്നു"
"പ്രവര്‍ത്തിപ്പിയ്ക്കാവുന്ന ഒരു പതിപ്പിനുവേണ്ടി നിങ്ങള്‍ക്കു് രഹസ്യസമ്മതപത്രം ഒപ്പിടേണ്ടിയിരുന്നു"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"This meant that the first step in using a computer was to promise not to "
"help your neighbor.  A cooperating community was forbidden.  The rule made "
"by the owners of proprietary software was, “If you share with your "
"neighbor, you are a pirate.  If you want any changes, beg us to make "
"them.”"
msgstr ""
"ഇതിനര്‍ത്ഥം, ഒരു കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നതിന്റെ ആദ്യപടി അയല്‍ക്കാരനെ സഹായിക്കില്ല"
"എന്നുറപ്പുകൊടുക്കുന്നതാണു്. പരസ്പരപങ്കാളിത്തമുള്ള ഒരു കൂട്ടായ്മ തടയപ്പെട്ടു, കുത്തക സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ "
"ഉടമസ്ഥര്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കിയ നിയമം ഇതായിരുന്നു, “ അയല്‍ക്കാരനെ സഹായിച്ചാല്‍ നിങ്ങള്‍ ഒരു "
"കള്ളനായി(പൈറേറ്റ്). എന്തെങ്കിലും മാറ്റം വരുത്തണമെങ്കില്‍ ഞങ്ങളോടപേക്ഷിയ്ക്കുക”"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The idea that the proprietary-software social system—the system that "
"says you are not allowed to share or change software—is antisocial, "
"that it is unethical, that it is simply wrong, may come as a surprise to "
"some readers.  But what else could we say about a system based on dividing "
"the public and keeping users helpless? Readers who find the idea surprising "
"may have taken proprietary-software social system as given, or judged it on "
"the terms suggested by proprietary software businesses.  Software publishers "
"have worked long and hard to convince people that there is only one way to "
"look at the issue."
msgstr ""
"കുത്തക സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ എന്ന സാമൂഹികവ്യവസ്ഥിതി—സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയരിന്റെ പങ്കുവെയ്ക്കാനോ"
"മാറ്റം വരുത്താനോ അനുവാദമില്ലാത്ത വ്യവസ്ഥിതി— സാമൂഹികവിരുദ്ധമാണു്,"
"അന്യായമാണു്, കേവലം തെറ്റാണു് എന്നുള്ള യാഥാര്‍ത്ഥ്യം ചില വായനക്കാര്‍ക്കു്"
"അത്ഭുതമായി തോന്നിയേക്കാം. ജനങ്ങളെ ഭിന്നിപ്പിയ്ക്കുന്നതും നിസ്സഹായരാക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്ന"
"ഒരു വ്യവസ്ഥിതിയെപറ്റി മറ്റെന്താണു് പറയുക? ഇതു് അത്ഭുതകരമായി തോന്നിയേക്കാവുന്ന ചില വായനക്കാര്‍"
"ഒരു പക്ഷേ തോന്നുംപടി ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കുന്നുണ്ടാവാം, അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ കുത്തസോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ നിര്‍മ്മാതാക്കാള്‍ പറയുന്ന"
"വ്യവസ്ഥകള്‍ക്കനുസരിച്ചു് ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കുന്നുണ്ടാവാം. സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ വിതരണക്കാര്‍ വളരെ പണിപെട്ടു്"
"ഇതിനെ ഇങ്ങനെയേ നോക്കിക്കാണാവൂ എന്നു സ്ഥാപിച്ചെടുത്തിട്ടുണ്ടു്."

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"When software publishers talk about “enforcing” their "
"“rights” or “stopping <a "
"href=\"/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Piracy\">piracy</a>”, what they "
"actually <em>say</em> is secondary.  The real message of these statements is "
"in the unstated assumptions they take for granted; the public is supposed to "
"accept them uncritically.  So let's examine them."
msgstr ""
"സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ വിതരണക്കാര്‍   അവരുടെ “അവകാശങ്ങളുടെ” "
" “സംരക്ഷണമെന്നോ ”  “<a "href=\"/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Piracy\">പൈറസി</a>” "
"തടയലെന്നോ” പറയുമ്പോള്‍ അതല്ലാ യഥാര്‍ത്ഥവസ്തുത. അതിലെ യഥാര്‍ത്ഥ സന്ദേശം "
"ജനങ്ങള്‍ അനുവദിച്ചുകൊടുത്തിട്ടുണ്ടെന്നു അവര്‍ വിചാരിക്കുന്ന ചോദ്യംചെയ്യാന്‍ പാടില്ലാത്ത "
"ചില ധാരണകളാണു്. അതെന്തൊക്കെയണെന്നു നമുക്കു നോക്കാം"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"One assumption is that software companies have an unquestionable natural "
"right to own software and thus have power over all its users.  (If this were "
"a natural right, then no matter how much harm it does to the public, we "
"could not object.)  Interestingly, the US Constitution and legal tradition "
"reject this view; copyright is not a natural right, but an artificial "
"government-imposed monopoly that limits the users' natural right to copy."
msgstr ""
"സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ കമ്പനികള്‍ക്കു് സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറിന്റെ മേല്‍ സ്വാഭാവികമായതും ചോദ്യം ചെയ്യാനാവാത്തതുമായ "
"ഉടമസ്ഥാവകാശം ഉണ്ടെന്നും അതിനാല്‍ അതിന്റെ ഉപയോക്താക്കളുടെ മേല്‍ അധികാരം ഉണ്ടെന്നും എന്നുള്ള "
"ധാരണയാണു് ഒന്നാമത്തേതു്. (സ്വാഭാവികമായ അവകാശമാണെങ്കില്‍, പൊതുജനത്തിനു് എത്ര ദോഷമാണെങ്കിലും "
"നമുക്കെതിര്‍ക്കാന്‍ കഴിയുമായിരുന്നില്ല). രസകരമെന്നു പറയട്ടെ, അമേരിക്കന്‍ ഭരണഘടനയും നിയമവാഴ്ചയും "
"ഈ കാഴ്ചപ്പാടിനെ എതിര്‍ക്കുന്നു; പകര്‍പ്പവകാശം സ്വാഭാവിക അവകാശമല്ല, മറിച്ച്, ഉപയോക്താക്കളുടെ"
"പകര്‍ത്താനുള്ള സ്വാഭാവിക അവകാശത്തിനെ നിയന്ത്രിക്കുവാന്‍ ഗവണ്‍മെന്റു് കൊടുക്കുന്ന കൃത്രിമ കുത്തകാവകാശമാണു്"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Another unstated assumption is that the only important thing about software "
"is what jobs it allows you to do—that we computer users should not "
"care what kind of society we are allowed to have."
msgstr ""
"സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറെന്നാല്‍ അതെന്തു ചെയ്യാന്‍ അനുവദിക്കുന്നുവോ അതാണെന്നും, അതെങ്ങനെയുള്ള 
" ഒരു സമൂഹമാണു് കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോക്താക്കള്‍ക്കു അനുവദിക്കുന്നതെന്നും നോക്കേണ്ടെ കാര്യമില്ലെന്നുമാണു് "
"വേറൊരു അലിഖിതപ്രമാണം"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"A third assumption is that we would have no usable software (or would never "
"have a program to do this or that particular job) if we did not offer a "
"company power over the users of the program.  This assumption may have "
"seemed plausible, before the free software movement demonstrated that we can "
"make plenty of useful software without putting chains on it."
msgstr ""
"ഉപയോക്താക്കളുടെ മേല്‍ കമ്പനിക്കു് അധികാരം നല്‍കിയില്ലെങ്കില്‍ സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറൊന്നും "
"കിട്ടില്ലെന്നും(അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ ഏതെങ്കിലും കാര്യം ചെയ്യാനുള്ള സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ ഒരിക്കലും ഉണ്ടാവില്ലെന്നും)"
"എന്നുള്ളതാണു് മൂന്നാമത്തേതു്. ചങ്ങലകളിടാതെയും ഉപകാരപ്രദമായ ധാരാളം സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറുകള്‍"
"ഉണ്ടാക്കാമെന്നു് സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ പ്രസ്ഥാനം തെളിയിക്കുന്നതിനുമുമ്പു് ഈ ധാരണ ഏകദേശം "
"വിശ്വസനീയമായിരുന്നു."

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"If we decline to accept these assumptions, and judge these issues based on "
"ordinary common-sense morality while placing the users first, we arrive at "
"very different conclusions.  Computer users should be free to modify "
"programs to fit their needs, and free to share software, because helping "
"other people is the basis of society."
msgstr ""
"ഈ ധാരണകളൊയൊക്കെ തള്ളിക്കളഞ്ഞുകൊണ്ടു് , ഉപയോക്താവിനെ ഏറ്റവും മുന്നില്‍ നിര്‍ത്തിക്കൊണ്ടു് "
"സാമാന്ദ്യ ബുദ്ധിയുടെ വിവേകത്തില്‍ ആലോചിച്ചാല്‍ വേറെ ചില അനുമാനങ്ങളിലാണു് നമ്മള്‍ എത്തിച്ചേരുക."
"സ്വന്തം ആവശ്യപ്രകാരം കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ പ്രോഗ്രാമുകള്‍ മാറ്റം വരുത്താനും പങ്കുവെയ്ക്കാനും കഴിയണം, കാരണം "
"മറ്റുള്ളവരെ സഹായിക്കുന്നതിലാണു് സമൂഹത്തിന്റെ അടിസ്ഥാനം"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"There is no room here for an extensive statement of the reasoning behind "
"this conclusion, so I refer the reader to the web page, <a "
"href=\"/philosophy/why-free.html\"> "
"http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-free.html</a>."
msgstr ""
"വിസ്താരഭയത്താല്‍ ആ അനുമാനത്തിലേയ്ക്കെത്തിച്ചേര്‍ന്നതെങ്ങനെയെന്നു് ഇവിടെ "
"പറയുന്നില്ല. വായനക്കാര്‍ <a "href=\"/philosophy/why-free.html\"> "
"http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-free.html</a> എന്ന വെബ്‌  താള്‍ വായിക്കാന്‍ "
"താത്പര്യപ്പെടുന്നു."

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "A stark moral choice."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"With my community gone, to continue as before was impossible.  Instead, I "
"faced a stark moral choice."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The easy choice was to join the proprietary software world, signing "
"nondisclosure agreements and promising not to help my fellow hacker.  Most "
"likely I would also be developing software that was released under "
"nondisclosure agreements, thus adding to the pressure on other people to "
"betray their fellows too."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"I could have made money this way, and perhaps amused myself writing code.  "
"But I knew that at the end of my career, I would look back on years of "
"building walls to divide people, and feel I had spent my life making the "
"world a worse place."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"I had already experienced being on the receiving end of a nondisclosure "
"agreement, when someone refused to give me and the <abbr>MIT</abbr> AI lab "
"the source code for the control program for our printer.  (The lack of "
"certain features in this program made use of the printer extremely "
"frustrating.)  So I could not tell myself that nondisclosure agreements were "
"innocent.  I was very angry when he refused to share with us; I could not "
"turn around and do the same thing to everyone else."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Another choice, straightforward but unpleasant, was to leave the computer "
"field.  That way my skills would not be misused, but they would still be "
"wasted.  I would not be culpable for dividing and restricting computer "
"users, but it would happen nonetheless."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"So I looked for a way that a programmer could do something for the good.  I "
"asked myself, was there a program or programs that I could write, so as to "
"make a community possible once again?"
msgstr ""
"അതുകൊണ്ടു് ഒരു പ്രോഗ്രാമര്‍ക്കൂ് നല്ലതെന്തെങ്കിലും ചെയ്യാനുള്ള വഴി ഞാന്‍ ആലോചിച്ചു."
"ഒരിക്കല്‍ കൂടി ആ കൂട്ടായ്മ സാധ്യമാകുന്ന തരത്തില്‍ എനിക്കെന്തെങ്കിലും ഒരു പ്രോഗ്രം എഴുതാമോ"
"എന്നു ഞാന്‍ സ്വയം ചോദിച്ചു."

section2 -Shyam KEdit


# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The answer was clear: what was needed first was an operating system.  That "
"is the crucial software for starting to use a computer.  With an operating "
"system, you can do many things; without one, you cannot run the computer at "
"all.  With a free operating system, we could again have a community of "
"cooperating hackers—and invite anyone to join.  And anyone would be "
"able to use a computer without starting out by conspiring to deprive his or "
"her friends."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job.  So "
"even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was "
"elected to do the job.  I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so "
"that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to "
"it.  The name GNU was chosen following a hacker tradition, as a recursive "
"acronym for “GNU's Not Unix.”"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"An operating system does not mean just a kernel, barely enough to run other "
"programs.  In the 1970s, every operating system worthy of the name included "
"command processors, assemblers, compilers, interpreters, debuggers, text "
"editors, mailers, and much more.  <abbr>ITS</abbr> had them, Multics had "
"them, VMS had them, and Unix had them.  The GNU operating system would "
"include them too."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid "Later I heard these words, attributed to Hillel (1):"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
msgid ""
"If I am not for myself, who will be for me?<br /> If I am only for myself, "
"what am I?<br /> If not now, when?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid "The decision to start the GNU project was based on a similar spirit."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(1) As an Atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes "
"find I admire something one of them has said."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Free as in freedom"
msgstr "ഫ്രീ എന്നാല്‍ സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം"

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The term “free software” is sometimes misunderstood—it has "
"nothing to do with price.  It is about freedom.  Here, therefore, is the "
"definition of free software: a program is free software, for you, a "
"particular user, if:"
msgstr ""
"“ഫ്രീ സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ ” എന്ന പദം ചിലപ്പോള്‍ തെറ്റിദ്ധരപ്പെടാറുണ്ടു്— ആ പദം, "
"വിലയെ സംബന്ധിച്ചുള്ളതല്ല. അതു് സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യത്തെ കുറിച്ചാണു്. അതിനാല്‍ സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വയെറിന്റെ "
"നിര്‍വചനം ഇപ്രകാരമാകാം:  ഒരു നിശ്ചിത ഉപയോക്താവിനു് ഒരു പ്രോഗ്രാം സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറാണെന്നു് "
"പറയണമെങ്കില്‍:"

# type: Content of: <ul><li>
msgid "You have the freedom to run the program, for any purpose."
msgstr "ഏതാവശ്യത്തിനും ആ പ്രോഗ്രാമുപയോഗിയ്ക്കാനുള്ള സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം നിങ്ങള്‍ക്കുണ്ടായിരിയ്ക്കണം."

# type: Content of: <ul><li>
msgid ""
"You have the freedom to modify the program to suit your needs.  (To make "
"this freedom effective in practice, you must have access to the source code, "
"since making changes in a program without having the source code is "
"exceedingly difficult.)"
msgstr ""
"നിങ്ങളുടെ ആവശ്യങ്ങള്‍ക്കനുസരിച്ചു്, ആ പ്രോഗ്രാമില്‍ മാറ്റം വരുത്താനുള്ള സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം "
"നിങ്ങള്‍ക്കുണ്ടായിരിയ്ക്കണം.( സോഴ്സ് കോഡില്ലാതെ  പ്രോഗ്രാമില്‍ മാറ്റങ്ങള്‍ വരുത്തുാന്‍ വളരെ "
"ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടായതു് കൊണ്ടു്, ഈ സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം പ്രായോഗികമാകണമെങ്കില്‍, നിങ്ങള്‍ക്കു് ആ പ്രോഗ്രാമിന്റെ സോഴ്സ് "
"കോഡ് ലഭ്യമായിരിയ്ക്കണം.) "

# type: Content of: <ul><li>
msgid ""
"You have the freedom to redistribute copies, either gratis or for a fee."
msgstr ""
"പകര്‍പ്പുകള്‍, ഒരു വിലയ്ക്കോ വെറുതെയോ, പുനര്‍വിതരണം ചെയ്യാനുള്ള സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം "
"നിങ്ങള്‍ക്കുണ്ടായിരിയ്ക്കണം."

# type: Content of: <ul><li>
msgid ""
"You have the freedom to distribute modified versions of the program, so that "
"the community can benefit from your improvements."
msgstr ""
"പ്രോഗ്രാമിന്റെ പുതുക്കിയ പതിപ്പുകള്‍ വിതരണം ചെയ്യാനുള്ള സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം നിങ്ങള്‍ക്കുണ്ടായിരിയ്ക്കണം, "
"അതുവഴി നിങ്ങളുടെ മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തലുകള്‍ സമൂഹത്തിനും ഗുണകരമാകും."

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Since “free” refers to freedom, not to price, there is no "
"contradiction between selling copies and free software.  In fact, the "
"freedom to sell copies is crucial: collections of free software sold on "
"CD-ROMs are important for the community, and selling them is an important "
"way to raise funds for free software development.  Therefore, a program "
"which people are not free to include on these collections is not free "
"software."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Because of the ambiguity of “free”, people have long looked for "
"alternatives, but no one has found a suitable alternative.  The English "
"Language has more words and nuances than any other, but it lacks a simple, "
"unambiguous, word that means “free”, as in "
"freedom—“unfettered” being the word that comes closest in "
"meaning.  Such alternatives as “liberated”, "
"“freedom”, and “open” have either the wrong meaning "
"or some other disadvantage."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "GNU software and the GNU system"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Developing a whole system is a very large project.  To bring it into reach, "
"I decided to adapt and use existing pieces of free software wherever that "
"was possible.  For example, I decided at the very beginning to use TeX as "
"the principal text formatter; a few years later, I decided to use the X "
"Window System rather than writing another window system for GNU."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Because of this decision, the GNU system is not the same as the collection "
"of all GNU software.  The GNU system includes programs that are not GNU "
"software, programs that were developed by other people and projects for "
"their own purposes, but which we can use because they are free software."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Commencing the project"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"In January 1984 I quit my job at <abbr>MIT</abbr> and began writing GNU "
"software.  Leaving <abbr>MIT</abbr> was necessary so that <abbr>MIT</abbr> "
"would not be able to interfere with distributing GNU as free software.  If I "
"had remained on the staff, <abbr>MIT</abbr> could have claimed to own the "
"work, and could have imposed their own distribution terms, or even turned "
"the work into a proprietary software package.  I had no intention of doing a "
"large amount of work only to see it become useless for its intended purpose: "
"creating a new software-sharing community."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"However, Professor Winston, then the head of the <abbr>MIT</abbr> AI Lab, "
"kindly invited me to keep using the lab's facilities."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The first steps"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Shortly before beginning the GNU project, I heard about the Free University "
"Compiler Kit, also known as VUCK.  (The Dutch word for “free” is "
"written with a V.)  This was a compiler designed to handle multiple "
"languages, including C and Pascal, and to support multiple target machines.  "
"I wrote to its author asking if GNU could use it."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"He responded derisively, stating that the university was free but the "
"compiler was not.  I therefore decided that my first program for the GNU "
"project would be a multi-language, multi-platform compiler."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Hoping to avoid the need to write the whole compiler myself, I obtained the "
"source code for the Pastel compiler, which was a multi-platform compiler "
"developed at Lawrence Livermore Lab.  It supported, and was written in, an "
"extended version of Pascal, designed to be a system-programming language.  I "
"added a C front end, and began porting it to the Motorola 68000 computer.  "
"But I had to give that up when I discovered that the compiler needed many "
"megabytes of stack space, and the available 68000 Unix system would only "
"allow 64k."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"I then realized that the Pastel compiler functioned by parsing the entire "
"input file into a syntax tree, converting the whole syntax tree into a chain "
"of “instructions”, and then generating the whole output file, "
"without ever freeing any storage.  At this point, I concluded I would have "
"to write a new compiler from scratch.  That new compiler is now known as "
"<acronym title=\"GNU Compiler Collection\">GCC</acronym>; none of the Pastel "
"compiler is used in it, but I managed to adapt and use the C front end that "
"I had written.  But that was some years later; first, I worked on GNU Emacs."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "GNU Emacs"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"I began work on GNU Emacs in September 1984, and in early 1985 it was "
"beginning to be usable.  This enabled me to begin using Unix systems to do "
"editing; having no interest in learning to use vi or ed, I had done my "
"editing on other kinds of machines until then."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"At this point, people began wanting to use GNU Emacs, which raised the "
"question of how to distribute it.  Of course, I put it on the anonymous ftp "
"server on the MIT computer that I used.  (This computer, prep.ai.mit.edu, "
"thus became the principal GNU ftp distribution site; when it was "
"decommissioned a few years later, we transferred the name to our new ftp "
"server.)  But at that time, many of the interested people were not on the "
"Internet and could not get a copy by ftp.  So the question was, what would I "
"say to them?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"I could have said, “Find a friend who is on the net and who will make "
"a copy for you.” Or I could have done what I did with the original "
"<abbr>PDP</abbr>-10 Emacs: tell them, “Mail me a tape and a <abbr "
"title=\"Self-addressed Stamped Envelope\">SASE</abbr>, and I will mail it "
"back with Emacs on it.” But I had no job, and I was looking for ways "
"to make money from free software.  So I announced that I would mail a tape "
"to whoever wanted one, for a fee of $150.  In this way, I started a free "
"software distribution business, the precursor of the companies that today "
"distribute entire Linux-based GNU systems."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Is a program free for every user?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"If a program is free software when it leaves the hands of its author, this "
"does not necessarily mean it will be free software for everyone who has a "
"copy of it.  For example, <a "
"href=\"/philosophy/categories.html#PublicDomainSoftware\"> public domain "
"software</a> (software that is not copyrighted) is free software; but anyone "
"can make a proprietary modified version of it.  Likewise, many free programs "
"are copyrighted but distributed under simple permissive licenses which allow "
"proprietary modified versions."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The paradigmatic example of this problem is the X Window System.  Developed "
"at <abbr>MIT</abbr>, and released as free software with a permissive "
"license, it was soon adopted by various computer companies.  They added X to "
"their proprietary Unix systems, in binary form only, and covered by the same "
"nondisclosure agreement.  These copies of X were no more free software than "
"Unix was."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The developers of the X Window System did not consider this a "
"problem—they expected and intended this to happen.  Their goal was not "
"freedom, just “success”, defined as “having many "
"users.” They did not care whether these users had freedom, only that "
"they should be numerous."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"This led to a paradoxical situation where two different ways of counting the "
"amount of freedom gave different answers to the question, “Is this "
"program free?” If you judged based on the freedom provided by the "
"distribution terms of the <abbr>MIT</abbr> release, you would say that X was "
"free software.  But if you measured the freedom of the average user of X, "
"you would have to say it was proprietary software.  Most X users were "
"running the proprietary versions that came with Unix systems, not the free "
"version."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Copyleft and the GNU GPL"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular.  So we "
"needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from being "
"turned into proprietary software.  The method we use is called "
"“copyleft”.(1)"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Copyleft uses copyright law, but flips it over to serve the opposite of its "
"usual purpose: instead of a means of privatizing software, it becomes a "
"means of keeping software free."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The central idea of copyleft is that we give everyone permission to run the "
"program, copy the program, modify the program, and distribute modified "
"versions—but not permission to add restrictions of their own.  Thus, "
"the crucial freedoms that define “free software” are guaranteed "
"to everyone who has a copy; they become inalienable rights."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"For an effective copyleft, modified versions must also be free.  This "
"ensures that work based on ours becomes available to our community if it is "
"published.  When programmers who have jobs as programmers volunteer to "
"improve GNU software, it is copyleft that prevents their employers from "
"saying, “You can't share those changes, because we are going to use "
"them to make our proprietary version of the program.”"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The requirement that changes must be free is essential if we want to ensure "
"freedom for every user of the program.  The companies that privatized the X "
"Window System usually made some changes to port it to their systems and "
"hardware.  These changes were small compared with the great extent of X, but "
"they were not trivial.  If making changes were an excuse to deny the users "
"freedom, it would be easy for anyone to take advantage of the excuse."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"A related issue concerns combining a free program with non-free code.  Such "
"a combination would inevitably be non-free; whichever freedoms are lacking "
"for the non-free part would be lacking for the whole as well.  To permit "
"such combinations would open a hole big enough to sink a ship.  Therefore, a "
"crucial requirement for copyleft is to plug this hole: anything added to or "
"combined with a copylefted program must be such that the larger combined "
"version is also free and copylefted."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software is "
"the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short.  We have other kinds "
"of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances.  GNU manuals are "
"copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the "
"complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for manuals.(2)"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(1) In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me a "
"letter.  On the envelope he had written several amusing sayings, including "
"this one: “Copyleft—all rights reversed.” I used the word "
"“copyleft” to name the distribution concept I was developing at "
"the time."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(2) We now use the <a href=\"/licenses/fdl.html\">GNU Free Documentation "
"License</a> for documentation."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The Free Software Foundation"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in the "
"GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once again.  So "
"in 1985 we created the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt charity for "
"free software development.  The <abbr title=\"Free Software "
"Foundation\">FSF</abbr> also took over the Emacs tape distribution business; "
"later it extended this by adding other free software (both GNU and non-GNU) "
"to the tape, and by selling free manuals as well."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The <abbr>FSF</abbr> accepts donations, but most of its income has always "
"come from sales—of copies of free software, and of other related "
"services.  Today it sells CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs with binaries, "
"nicely printed manuals (all with freedom to redistribute and modify), and "
"Deluxe Distributions (where we build the whole collection of software for "
"your choice of platform)."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of "
"GNU software packages.  Two notable ones are the C library and the shell.  "
"The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses "
"to communicate with Linux.  It was developed by a member of the Free "
"Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath.  The shell used on most GNU/Linux "
"systems is <acronym title=\"Bourne Again Shell\">BASH</acronym>, the Bourne "
"Again Shell(1), which was developed by <abbr>FSF</abbr> employee Brian Fox."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"We funded development of these programs because the GNU project was not just "
"about tools or a development environment.  Our goal was a complete operating "
"system, and these programs were needed for that goal."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(1) “Bourne Again Shell” is a play on the name “Bourne "
"Shell”, which was the usual shell on Unix."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Free software support"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The free software philosophy rejects a specific widespread business "
"practice, but it is not against business.  When businesses respect the "
"users' freedom, we wish them success."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Selling copies of Emacs demonstrates one kind of free software business.  "
"When the <abbr>FSF</abbr> took over that business, I needed another way to "
"make a living.  I found it in selling services relating to the free software "
"I had developed.  This included teaching, for subjects such as how to "
"program GNU Emacs and how to customize <acronym>GCC</acronym>, and software "
"development, mostly porting <acronym>GCC</acronym> to new platforms."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Today each of these kinds of free software business is practiced by a number "
"of corporations.  Some distribute free software collections on CD-ROM; "
"others sell support at levels ranging from answering user questions, to "
"fixing bugs, to adding major new features.  We are even beginning to see "
"free software companies based on launching new free software products."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Watch out, though—a number of companies that associate themselves with "
"the term “open source” actually base their business on non-free "
"software that works with free software.  These are not free software "
"companies, they are proprietary software companies whose products tempt "
"users away from freedom.  They call these “value added”, which "
"reflects the values they would like us to adopt: convenience above freedom.  "
"If we value freedom more, we should call them “freedom "
"subtracted” products."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Technical goals"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The principal goal of GNU was to be free software.  Even if GNU had no "
"technical advantage over Unix, it would have a social advantage, allowing "
"users to cooperate, and an ethical advantage, respecting the user's freedom."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"But it was natural to apply the known standards of good practice to the "
"work—for example, dynamically allocating data structures to avoid "
"arbitrary fixed size limits, and handling all the possible 8-bit codes "
"wherever that made sense."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"In addition, we rejected the Unix focus on small memory size, by deciding "
"not to support 16-bit machines (it was clear that 32-bit machines would be "
"the norm by the time the GNU system was finished), and to make no effort to "
"reduce memory usage unless it exceeded a megabyte.  In programs for which "
"handling very large files was not crucial, we encouraged programmers to read "
"an entire input file into core, then scan its contents without having to "
"worry about I/O."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"These decisions enabled many GNU programs to surpass their Unix counterparts "
"in reliability and speed."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Donated computers"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"As the GNU project's reputation grew, people began offering to donate "
"machines running Unix to the project.  These were very useful, because the "
"easiest way to develop components of GNU was to do it on a Unix system, and "
"replace the components of that system one by one.  But they raised an "
"ethical issue: whether it was right for us to have a copy of Unix at all."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Unix was (and is) proprietary software, and the GNU project's philosophy "
"said that we should not use proprietary software.  But, applying the same "
"reasoning that leads to the conclusion that violence in self defense is "
"justified, I concluded that it was legitimate to use a proprietary package "
"when that was crucial for developing a free replacement that would help "
"others stop using the proprietary package."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"But, even if this was a justifiable evil, it was still an evil.  Today we no "
"longer have any copies of Unix, because we have replaced them with free "
"operating systems.  If we could not replace a machine's operating system "
"with a free one, we replaced the machine instead."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The GNU Task List"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"As the GNU project proceeded, and increasing numbers of system components "
"were found or developed, eventually it became useful to make a list of the "
"remaining gaps.  We used it to recruit developers to write the missing "
"pieces.  This list became known as the GNU task list.  In addition to "
"missing Unix components, we listed various other useful software and "
"documentation projects that, we thought, a truly complete system ought to "
"have."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Today, hardly any Unix components are left in the GNU task list—those "
"jobs have been done, aside from a few inessential ones.  But the list is "
"full of projects that some might call “applications”.  Any "
"program that appeals to more than a narrow class of users would be a useful "
"thing to add to an operating system."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Even games are included in the task list—and have been since the "
"beginning.  Unix included games, so naturally GNU should too.  But "
"compatibility was not an issue for games, so we did not follow the list of "
"games that Unix had.  Instead, we listed a spectrum of different kinds of "
"games that users might like."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The GNU Library GPL"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU Library "
"General Public License(1), which gives permission to link proprietary "
"software with the library.  Why make this exception?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"It is not a matter of principle; there is no principle that says proprietary "
"software products are entitled to include our code.  (Why contribute to a "
"project predicated on refusing to share with us?)  Using the LGPL for the C "
"library, or for any library, is a matter of strategy."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The C library does a generic job; every proprietary system or compiler comes "
"with a C library.  Therefore, to make our C library available only to free "
"software would not have given free software any advantage—it would "
"only have discouraged use of our library."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"One system is an exception to this: on the GNU system (and this includes "
"GNU/Linux), the GNU C library is the only C library.  So the distribution "
"terms of the GNU C library determine whether it is possible to compile a "
"proprietary program for the GNU system.  There is no ethical reason to allow "
"proprietary applications on the GNU system, but strategically it seems that "
"disallowing them would do more to discourage use of the GNU system than to "
"encourage development of free applications."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"That is why using the Library GPL is a good strategy for the C library.  For "
"other libraries, the strategic decision needs to be considered on a "
"case-by-case basis.  When a library does a special job that can help write "
"certain kinds of programs, then releasing it under the GPL, limiting it to "
"free programs only, is a way of helping other free software developers, "
"giving them an advantage against proprietary software."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Consider GNU Readline, a library that was developed to provide command-line "
"editing for <acronym>BASH</acronym>.  Readline is released under the "
"ordinary GNU GPL, not the Library GPL.  This probably does reduce the amount "
"Readline is used, but that is no loss for us.  Meanwhile, at least one "
"useful application has been made free software specifically so it could use "
"Readline, and that is a real gain for the community."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Proprietary software developers have the advantages money provides; free "
"software developers need to make advantages for each other.  I hope some day "
"we will have a large collection of GPL-covered libraries that have no "
"parallel available to proprietary software, providing useful modules to "
"serve as building blocks in new free software, and adding up to a major "
"advantage for further free software development."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(1) This license is now called the GNU Lesser General Public License, to "
"avoid giving the idea that all libraries ought to use it.  <a "
"href=\"/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html\"></a>."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Scratching an itch?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Eric Raymond says that “Every good work of software starts by "
"scratching a developer's personal itch.” Maybe that happens sometimes, "
"but many essential pieces of GNU software were developed in order to have a "
"complete free operating system.  They come from a vision and a plan, not "
"from impulse."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"For example, we developed the GNU C library because a Unix-like system needs "
"a C library, the Bourne-Again Shell (<acronym>bash</acronym>)  because a "
"Unix-like system needs a shell, and GNU tar because a Unix-like system needs "
"a tar program.  The same is true for my own programs—the GNU C "
"compiler, GNU Emacs, GDB and GNU Make."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Some GNU programs were developed to cope with specific threats to our "
"freedom.  Thus, we developed gzip to replace the Compress program, which had "
"been lost to the community because of the <abbr "
"title=\"Lempel-Ziv-Welch\">LZW</abbr> patents.  We found people to develop "
"LessTif, and more recently started <acronym title=\"GNU Network Object Model "
"Environment\">GNOME</acronym> and Harmony, to address the problems caused by "
"certain proprietary libraries (see below).  We are developing the GNU "
"Privacy Guard to replace popular non-free encryption software, because users "
"should not have to choose between privacy and freedom."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Of course, the people writing these programs became interested in the work, "
"and many features were added to them by various people for the sake of their "
"own needs and interests.  But that is not why the programs exist."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Unexpected developments"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"At the beginning of the GNU project, I imagined that we would develop the "
"whole GNU system, then release it as a whole.  That is not how it happened."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Since each component of the GNU system was implemented on a Unix system, "
"each component could run on Unix systems, long before a complete GNU system "
"existed.  Some of these programs became popular, and users began extending "
"them and porting them—to the various incompatible versions of Unix, "
"and sometimes to other systems as well."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The process made these programs much more powerful, and attracted both funds "
"and contributors to the GNU project.  But it probably also delayed "
"completion of a minimal working system by several years, as GNU developers' "
"time was put into maintaining these ports and adding features to the "
"existing components, rather than moving on to write one missing component "
"after another."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "The GNU Hurd"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"By 1990, the GNU system was almost complete; the only major missing "
"component was the kernel.  We had decided to implement our kernel as a "
"collection of server processes running on top of Mach.  Mach is a "
"microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University and then at the "
"University of Utah; the GNU HURD is a collection of servers (or “herd "
"of gnus”) that run on top of Mach, and do the various jobs of the Unix "
"kernel.  The start of development was delayed as we waited for Mach to be "
"released as free software, as had been promised."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"One reason for choosing this design was to avoid what seemed to be the "
"hardest part of the job: debugging a kernel program without a source-level "
"debugger to do it with.  This part of the job had been done already, in "
"Mach, and we expected to debug the HURD servers as user programs, with GDB.  "
"But it took a long time to make that possible, and the multi-threaded "
"servers that send messages to each other have turned out to be very hard to "
"debug.  Making the HURD work solidly has stretched on for many years."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Alix"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The GNU kernel was not originally supposed to be called the HURD.  Its "
"original name was Alix—named after the woman who was my sweetheart at "
"the time.  She, a Unix system administrator, had pointed out how her name "
"would fit a common naming pattern for Unix system versions; as a joke, she "
"told her friends, “Someone should name a kernel after me.” I "
"said nothing, but decided to surprise her with a kernel named Alix."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"It did not stay that way.  Michael Bushnell (now Thomas), the main developer "
"of the kernel, preferred the name HURD, and redefined Alix to refer to a "
"certain part of the kernel—the part that would trap system calls and "
"handle them by sending messages to HURD servers."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Ultimately, Alix and I broke up, and she changed her name; independently, "
"the HURD design was changed so that the C library would send messages "
"directly to servers, and this made the Alix component disappear from the "
"design."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"But before these things happened, a friend of hers came across the name Alix "
"in the HURD source code, and mentioned the name to her.  So the name did its "
"job."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Linux and GNU/Linux"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The GNU Hurd is not ready for production use.  Fortunately, another kernel "
"is available.  In 1991, Linus Torvalds developed a Unix-compatible kernel "
"and called it Linux.  Around 1992, combining Linux with the "
"not-quite-complete GNU system resulted in a complete free operating system.  "
"(Combining them was a substantial job in itself, of course.)  It is due to "
"Linux that we can actually run a version of the GNU system today."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"We call this system version GNU/Linux, to express its composition as a "
"combination of the GNU system with Linux as the kernel."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Challenges in our future"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"We have proved our ability to develop a broad spectrum of free software.  "
"This does not mean we are invincible and unstoppable.  Several challenges "
"make the future of free software uncertain; meeting them will require "
"steadfast effort and endurance, sometimes lasting for years.  It will "
"require the kind of determination that people display when they value their "
"freedom and will not let anyone take it away."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid "The following four sections discuss these challenges."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Secret hardware"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Hardware manufacturers increasingly tend to keep hardware specifications "
"secret.  This makes it difficult to write free drivers so that Linux and "
"XFree86 can support new hardware.  We have complete free systems today, but "
"we will not have them tomorrow if we cannot support tomorrow's computers."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"There are two ways to cope with this problem.  Programmers can do reverse "
"engineering to figure out how to support the hardware.  The rest of us can "
"choose the hardware that is supported by free software; as our numbers "
"increase, secrecy of specifications will become a self-defeating policy."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient "
"determination to undertake it? Yes—if we have built up a strong "
"feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and non-free drivers "
"are intolerable.  And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even a "
"little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination to "
"have freedom is widespread."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well.  There is a free BIOS, "
"coreboot; the problem is getting specs for machines so that coreboot can "
"support them.)"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Non-free libraries"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"A non-free library that runs on free operating systems acts as a trap for "
"free software developers.  The library's attractive features are the bait; "
"if you use the library, you fall into the trap, because your program cannot "
"usefully be part of a free operating system.  (Strictly speaking, we could "
"include your program, but it won't <strong>run</strong> with the library "
"missing.)  Even worse, if a program that uses the proprietary library "
"becomes popular, it can lure other unsuspecting programmers into the trap."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The first instance of this problem was the Motif toolkit, back in the 80s.  "
"Although there were as yet no free operating systems, it was clear what "
"problem Motif would cause for them later on.  The GNU Project responded in "
"two ways: by asking individual free software projects to support the free X "
"toolkit widgets as well as Motif, and by asking for someone to write a free "
"replacement for Motif.  The job took many years; LessTif, developed by the "
"Hungry Programmers, became powerful enough to support most Motif "
"applications only in 1997."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Between 1996 and 1998, another non-free <abbr title=\"Graphical User "
"Interface\">GUI</abbr> toolkit library, called Qt, was used in a substantial "
"collection of free software, the desktop <acronym title=\"K Desktop "
"Environment\">KDE</acronym>."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Free GNU/Linux systems were unable to use <acronym>KDE</acronym>, because we "
"could not use the library.  However, some commercial distributors of "
"GNU/Linux systems who were not strict about sticking with free software "
"added <acronym>KDE</acronym> to their systems—producing a system with "
"more capabilities, but less freedom.  The <acronym>KDE</acronym> group was "
"actively encouraging more programmers to use Qt, and millions of new "
"“Linux users” had never been exposed to the idea that there was "
"a problem in this.  The situation appeared grim."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The free software community responded to the problem in two ways: "
"<acronym>GNOME</acronym> and Harmony."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"<acronym>GNOME</acronym>, the GNU Network Object Model Environment, is GNU's "
"desktop project.  Started in 1997 by Miguel de Icaza, and developed with the "
"support of Red Hat Software, <acronym>GNOME</acronym> set out to provide "
"similar desktop facilities, but using free software exclusively.  It has "
"technical advantages as well, such as supporting a variety of languages, not "
"just C++.  But its main purpose was freedom: not to require the use of any "
"non-free software."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Harmony is a compatible replacement library, designed to make it possible to "
"run <acronym>KDE</acronym> software without using Qt."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license which, "
"when carried out, should make Qt free software.  There is no way to be sure, "
"but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm response to the "
"problem that Qt posed when it was non-free.  (The new license is "
"inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid using Qt.)"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"[Subsequent note: in September 2000, Qt was rereleased under the GNU GPL, "
"which essentially solved this problem.]"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"How will we respond to the next tempting non-free library? Will the whole "
"community understand the need to stay out of the trap? Or will many of us "
"give up freedom for convenience, and produce a major problem? Our future "
"depends on our philosophy."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Software patents"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put "
"algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty years.  "
"The <abbr>LZW</abbr> compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983, "
"and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed <abbr "
"title=\"Graphics Interchange Format\">GIF</abbr>s.  In 1998, a free program "
"to produce <abbr title=\"MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3\">MP3</abbr> compressed audio "
"was removed from distribution under threat of a patent suit."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"There are ways to cope with patents: we can search for evidence that a "
"patent is invalid, and we can look for alternative ways to do a job.  But "
"each of these methods works only sometimes; when both fail, a patent may "
"force all free software to lack some feature that users want.  What will we "
"do when this happens?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Those of us who value free software for freedom's sake will stay with free "
"software anyway.  We will manage to get work done without the patented "
"features.  But those who value free software because they expect it to be "
"technically superior are likely to call it a failure when a patent holds it "
"back.  Thus, while it is useful to talk about the practical effectiveness of "
"the “cathedral” model of development (1), and the reliability "
"and power of some free software, we must not stop there.  We must talk about "
"freedom and principle."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"(1) It would have been clearer to write ‘of the “bazaar” "
"model’, since that was the alternative that was new and initially "
"controversial."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Free documentation"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The biggest deficiency in our free operating systems is not in the "
"software—it is the lack of good free manuals that we can include in "
"our systems.  Documentation is an essential part of any software package; "
"when an important free software package does not come with a good free "
"manual, that is a major gap.  We have many such gaps today."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Free documentation, like free software, is a matter of freedom, not price.  "
"The criterion for a free manual is pretty much the same as for free "
"software: it is a matter of giving all users certain freedoms.  "
"Redistribution (including commercial sale) must be permitted, on-line and on "
"paper, so that the manual can accompany every copy of the program."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Permission for modification is crucial too.  As a general rule, I don't "
"believe that it is essential for people to have permission to modify all "
"sorts of articles and books.  For example, I don't think you or I are "
"obliged to give permission to modify articles like this one, which describe "
"our actions and our views."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"But there is a particular reason why the freedom to modify is crucial for "
"documentation for free software.  When people exercise their right to modify "
"the software, and add or change its features, if they are conscientious they "
"will change the manual too—so they can provide accurate and usable "
"documentation with the modified program.  A manual which does not allow "
"programmers to be conscientious and finish the job, does not fill our "
"community's needs."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Some kinds of limits on how modifications are done pose no problem.  For "
"example, requirements to preserve the original author's copyright notice, "
"the distribution terms, or the list of authors, are ok.  It is also no "
"problem to require modified versions to include notice that they were "
"modified, even to have entire sections that may not be deleted or changed, "
"as long as these sections deal with nontechnical topics.  These kinds of "
"restrictions are not a problem because they don't stop the conscientious "
"programmer from adapting the manual to fit the modified program.  In other "
"words, they don't block the free software community from making full use of "
"the manual."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"However, it must be possible to modify all the <em>technical</em> content of "
"the manual, and then distribute the result in all the usual media, through "
"all the usual channels; otherwise, the restrictions do obstruct the "
"community, the manual is not free, and we need another manual."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Will free software developers have the awareness and determination to "
"produce a full spectrum of free manuals? Once again, our future depends on "
"philosophy."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "We must talk about freedom"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Estimates today are that there are ten million users of GNU/Linux systems "
"such as Debian GNU/Linux and Red Hat “Linux”.  Free software has "
"developed such practical advantages that users are flocking to it for purely "
"practical reasons."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The good consequences of this are evident: more interest in developing free "
"software, more customers for free software businesses, and more ability to "
"encourage companies to develop commercial free software instead of "
"proprietary software products."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"But interest in the software is growing faster than awareness of the "
"philosophy it is based on, and this leads to trouble.  Our ability to meet "
"the challenges and threats described above depends on the will to stand firm "
"for freedom.  To make sure our community has this will, we need to spread "
"the idea to the new users as they come into the community."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"But we are failing to do so: the efforts to attract new users into our "
"community are far outstripping the efforts to teach them the civics of our "
"community.  We need to do both, and we need to keep the two efforts in "
"balance."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "“Open Source”"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Teaching new users about freedom became more difficult in 1998, when a part "
"of the community decided to stop using the term “free software” "
"and say “open source software” instead."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Some who favored this term aimed to avoid the confusion of "
"“free” with “gratis”—a valid goal.  Others, "
"however, aimed to set aside the spirit of principle that had motivated the "
"free software movement and the GNU project, and to appeal instead to "
"executives and business users, many of whom hold an ideology that places "
"profit above freedom, above community, above principle.  Thus, the rhetoric "
"of “open source” focuses on the potential to make high quality, "
"powerful software, but shuns the ideas of freedom, community, and principle."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The “Linux” magazines are a clear example of this—they are "
"filled with advertisements for proprietary software that works with "
"GNU/Linux.  When the next Motif or Qt appears, will these magazines warn "
"programmers to stay away from it, or will they run ads for it?"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"The support of business can contribute to the community in many ways; all "
"else being equal, it is useful.  But winning their support by speaking even "
"less about freedom and principle can be disastrous; it makes the previous "
"imbalance between outreach and civics education even worse."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"“Free software” and “open source” describe the same "
"category of software, more or less, but say different things about the "
"software, and about values.  The GNU Project continues to use the term "
"“free software”, to express the idea that freedom, not just "
"technology, is important."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <h3>
msgid "Try!"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Yoda's philosophy (“There is no ‘try’”) sounds neat, "
"but it doesn't work for me.  I have done most of my work while anxious about "
"whether I could do the job, and unsure that it would be enough to achieve "
"the goal if I did.  But I tried anyway, because there was no one but me "
"between the enemy and my city.  Surprising myself, I have sometimes "
"succeeded."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Sometimes I failed; some of my cities have fallen.  Then I found another "
"threatened city, and got ready for another battle.  Over time, I've learned "
"to look for threats and put myself between them and my city, calling on "
"other hackers to come and join me."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <p>
msgid ""
"Nowadays, often I'm not the only one.  It is a relief and a joy when I see a "
"regiment of hackers digging in to hold the line, and I realize, this city "
"may survive—for now.  But the dangers are greater each year, and now "
"Microsoft has explicitly targeted our community.  We can't take the future "
"of freedom for granted.  Don't take it for granted! If you want to keep your "
"freedom, you must be prepared to defend it."
msgstr ""

#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.
# type: Content of: <div>
msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S NOTES*"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <div><p>
msgid ""
"Please send FSF & GNU inquiries to <a "
"href=\"mailto:gnu@gnu.org\"><em>gnu@gnu.org</em></a>.  There are also <a "
"href=\"/contact/\">other ways to contact</a> the FSF.  <br /> Please send "
"broken links and other corrections (or suggestions) to <a "
"href=\"mailto:webmasters@gnu.org\"><em>webmasters@gnu.org</em></a>."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <div><p>
msgid ""
"Please see the <a "
"href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html\">Translations README</a> "
"for information on coordinating and submitting translations of this article."
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <div><p>
msgid ""
"Copyright © 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007 Richard Stallman <br /> "
"Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any "
"medium without royalty provided this notice is preserved."
msgstr ""

#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.
# type: Content of: <div><div>
msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S CREDITS*"
msgstr ""

#.  timestamp start 
# type: Content of: <div><p>
msgid "Updated:"
msgstr ""

# type: Content of: <div><h4>
msgid "Translations of this page"
msgstr ""

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